Kidney cyst is a round pouch or a closed pocket that is filled with fluid. They form on or in the kidneys. More than one cyst can be formed. The most common type of kidney cysts is called simple kidney cysts. They are noncancerous and do not cause harm, so they rarely lead to complications. Kidney cyst is not a progressive disease as for instance polycystic kidney disease that can progress in kidney failure.

Normally, only one cyst occurs on the surface of the kidney, but multiple cysts can also appear on one or both kidneys. It is not very clear what causes simple kidney cysts to occur. They are usually found when tests for other diseases are run. There is no need for treatment of simple kidney cysts that aren’t causing any symptoms.



Usually, there are no symptoms for simple kidney cysts. However, if the cyst is very large, some of the following symptoms may appear:

  • Temperature
  • Pain in the upper abdomen or in the back or side

It is recommendable to see the doctor if a person is experiencing some of these symptoms.



The causes for simple kidney cyst are not clear. One theory says that the cysts develop when the external layer of the kidney is weak. Then, a pouch is formed which fills with fluid, detaches and develops into a cyst.


Risk factors

Although the simple kidney cysts can appear at any age, the risk increases as much as the age. These types of cysts affect men more commonly than women.



Possible complications that can happen occasionally are:

  • Infection-a kidney cyst can become infected what will cause temperature and pain
  • Burst-a kidney cyst that bursts will cause severe back pain or pain in the side
  • Obstruction of the urine-a kidney cyst that obstructs  the normal flow of the urine can result in kidney swelling



Treatment won’t be needed if the simple kidney cyst doesn’t cause any symptoms and doesn’t affect the kidney function. Sometimes the simple kidney cyst disappears on its own. However, the usual doctor’s recommendation is to have the kidney tested with ultrasounds for some period so that the condition is watched for any possible enlargement of the cyst. Treatment is recommendable if the cyst is changed and enlarged and causes symptoms.

The treatment options may be:

  • Puncture-using ultrasound for guidance the doctor punctures the cyst with a big, thin needle through the skin and the kidney cyst wall
  • Draining-the fluid is drained and the cyst if filled with alcohol to prevent it from reforming
  • Surgery-for larger cysts that provoke symptoms

The surgery: Bigger cysts are usually treated with surgery. The surgeon will make few small incisions in the skin to access the cyst. Special toll and tiny video camera will then be inserted. While monitoring on the video in the operating room, the surgeon guiding the tools to the kidney cyst will drain the fluid. After that, the walls of the cyst will be cut off or burned.