All eyes have optical aberrations or imperfections. Certain visual defects such as near-sightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism can be corrected with contact lenses. These disorders are characterized as low-level optical aberrations (low order). 

However, there are other optical aberrations categorized as high-level aberrations (high order) that cannot be corrected with normal corrective lenses and they occur due to imperfections of the retinal image. Optical aberrations are measured with an instrument known as the aberrometer.

Until recent years, refractive surgery was used as a treatment of only standard optical aberrations of low order, not taking into account the other imperfections of the eye. In the same way, all patients suffering from a certain amount of dioptres were treated. The reason for this was not taking into account the fact that two eyes affected by the same dioptres, for example of myopia, can present in two completely different forms due to the optical aberrations of higher order. As a result, the quality of the retinal image obtained with standard treatment would always be very good but it could be improved. 

Today, with the customized (personalized) refractive surgery one can take into account these optical imperfections and evaluate how to perform reshaping of the cornea with the laser in a personalized, and customized technique for each individual patient. 

The word "customized" derives from the English term custom, which means made by measure or custom made. By treating optical aberrations not only of low order, but also reducing the presence of those of higher order, one can obtain a further improvement of the quality of the retinal image obtained after surgery. The most appropriate way of customizing an intervention with excimer laser is through the refractive surgery of trans epithelial surface, because it applies the personalization of the procedure right on the surface that has been measured with the aberrometer.

The department of Refractive Surgery at the Humanitas Clinical Institute of Ophthalmology Centre has an excimer laser of the latest generation, which is recognized as one of the most advanced surgical instruments in the industry currently on the world market.

Today, refractive surgery is considered to be a safe and effective technique. It is considered effective because the intervention eliminates or markedly reduces the visual defects in the majority of patients. Moreover, today the treatment is considered extremely precise. In addition, the technique is considered safe, because after more than 20 years of experience to this day, the incidence of complications related to the intervention is extremely low. 


These results are achieved if the intervention is performed by experienced and well-trained surgeons in highly specialized centres. It is important that the surgical team in charge, which must be formed by experienced professionals, combines its efforts to perform an in-depth evaluation and selection of the patient, and a potentially scientific research for the continuous improvement of technique and use of the latest surgical technologies.

The department of refractive surgery centre of the clinical ophthalmology institute at Humanitas matches the requirements for success. The refractive surgery department is also a reference point for refractive surgery internationally.