The endoscopic lithotripsy by ureteroscopy (URS for the Anglo-Saxon authors) is an endoscopic procedure that involves no incision, and guarantees a success rate of almost 100% in the treatment of ureteral stones. It is considered the method of choice for all ureteral stones that have a diameter greater than 1 cm and those smaller than 1 cm when associated with urinary stasis, and the second treatment choice for all cases in which a previous treatment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed.
The procedure begins with the introduction of an endoscopic probe through the urethra called "ureterorenoscope", which identifies the ureteral outlet, in which a guide wire is introduced for security. It then goes back along the ureter until the calculation. At this point the holmium laser is used to shatter the fragments, which are extracted with special "baskets". This surgery is performed under general anaesthesia and involves a hospital stay, in uncomplicated cases, one day or one night in the hospital. In about 70% of cases it is necessary to place a ureteral stent graft as a "double-J" or a stent, for about a week to allow the outflow of urine and avoid the occurrence of troublesome colic.