The Clinical Cardiology Unit deals with patients who have developed heart failure as a result of a cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic heart disease (angina, heart attack), cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, arrhythmias and hypertension.  The activity is divided into a system of elective hospitalization and emergency department (over 30% of patients who are administered into the ER have cardiovascular problems and are subjected to expert advice), pre-admission (all patients undergoing elective surgery are evaluated from a clinical and instrumental point of view) and out-patients.


A cardiac evaluation consists of the use of instrumental methods (ergometry, dynamic electrocardiography, echocardiography, nuclear medicine, radiology, etc) all of which together with the clinic provide and optimize the diagnosis and treatment of patients.


The Unit ensures that patients with heart failure receive a correct diagnosis and prognosis with the most appropriate form of treatment. Being a tertiary center, the treatment of heart failure syndromes uses a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between cardiologists,  nurse specialists and other personnel as needed, including electrophysiologists, interventional cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, psychologists and physiotherapists. The center provides both self-care education and implementation of medical treatment that is taught through advanced nursing courses such as: cardiac resynchronization therapy, treatment/prevention of arrthymias, correction of coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease, all the way up to cardiac replacement therapy through the implantation of mechanical assistance devices or the inclusion of heart transplant lists at specialized centers recognized by the Lombardy Region. There is also a channel of contact in the event of rapid instability, to reduce the risk of hospitalization. Finally, the Unit participates in national and international clinical studies on the treatment of heart failure.