The Clinical Cardiology Unit deals with all aspects of cardiovascular pathology: ischemic cardiomyopathy (angina, heart attack), decompensation, arritmia and hypertension are the most common aspects of cardiovascular disease. Unit activities include elective hospitalisation and Accident and Emergency (over 30% of patients arriving in A&E have cardiovascular problems and referred to specialists ), pre-admission (all patients undergoing elective surgery are assessed from a clinical and instrumental point of view) and out-patients. Cardiological assessments avail of instrumental methods (ergometry, dynamic electrocardiography, echocardiogram, nuclear medicine, radiology etc.) that, together with the clinic, provide and optimise the patient's diagnostic therapeutic journey. The Cardiac Insufficiency Centre also refers to the unit. The Centre makes sure cardiac insufficiency patients receive the correct diagnosis and prognosis with non-invasive methods such as eechocardiogram and functional assessment and invasive methods such as hemodynamic studies, coronarography and electrophysiological studies. Cardiac insufficiency treatment avails of an intergrated approach: medical treatment constantly adjusted to the patient's condition, with an out-patient follow-up program and, in collaboration with the other Humanitas cardiology and cardiosurgical specialists, surgical type treatments.