Sometimes, urine may have a different appearance than usual. In some cases, seeking medical attention and further diagnostic investigations is advisable.

Appearance of Urine

Here’s a helpful overview:

  • Clear Yellow Urine: Urine color and appearance analysis are key in diagnosing urinary system diseases. Typically, urine is yellow and clear, but different coloration and varying degrees of turbidity can occur during renal, urologic, or systemic diseases. However, changes in these parameters may not always cause concern.
  • Dark and Strong-Smelling Urine: Darker and stronger-smelling urine can be caused by dehydration, profuse sweating, or certain medications. However, infections, excess bilirubin, or urinary system dysfunction can also cause dark-colored urine.
  • Red-colored urine and Blood in Urine: Reddish urine can indicate hematuria, meaning the presence of blood in urine. This symptom can have various causes, including exertion or trauma to the pelvic region. Blood in urine can originate from any organ of the urinary system. It may be associated with other symptoms, such as abdominal pain or difficulty urinating.
  • Foam in Urine: Foam in urine is ordinary and can be caused by rapid urine output, dehydration, or detergent residue. However, it can also indicate proteinuria, an abnormal presence of protein in urine.

When to Seek Medical Attention

Suppose hematuria, dark-colored urine, or foam in urine persists or worsens. In that case, contacting a healthcare provider for a physical-chemical examination and urine culture is essential. 

Urinalysis is a simple, noninvasive test that can help diagnose renal and urologic diseases early. In case of abnormalities, a nephrologic/urologic evaluation and further investigations may be necessary, such as microscopic analysis of the urinary sediment, urinary apparatus ultrasonography, specific blood tests, and, in more severe cases, second-level tests (uro-TC or uroRMN) or renal biopsy. 

Each laboratory abnormality should always be placed in the clinical context of each individual.