Cyclophosphamide is used both for the treatment of many cancers such as leukemia, lymphoid and non-lymphoid cancer, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and mycosis fungoides as immunosuppressive therapy (affects B lymphocytes, cells NK cells, monocytes and macrophages precursors). It is also used for the treatment of many solid cancers such as neuroblastoma, breast, ovary and lung cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma and sarcomas. It can be used in high doses as pretreatment for transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (progenitor cells that make blood cells).


What is Cyclophosphamide?


Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic (active against neoplasms) and cytostatic (i.e. able to arrest the growth and division of cells, in particular of neoplastic ones) agent of the nitrogen mustards group, which is converted into an active metabolite alkylating with properties similar to those of mustina.


How should Cyclophosphamide be taken?


Relative to the case, Cyclophosphamide is prescribed for oral, intravenous, intramuscular, intrapleural and intraperitoneal use.


Side effects associated with Cyclophosphamide


The side effects associated with the assumption of this medicine vary from person to person, also in relation to the assumed dose. In general, as in the case of many other antineoplastic drugs, the most common side effects are:


  • Temporary reduction of the production of blood cells by the bone marrow – red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets – which leads to anemia and physical exhaustion; infections; bruising or bleeding;
  • Vomiting and nausea;
  • Hair loss;


On the other hand, the less common side effects may include:


  • Cystitis (Cyclophosphamide can irritate the bladder);
  • Temporary reduction of liver function;
  • Pain or ulcers of the oral cavity;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Aspect temporary alteration of the nails (they can darken);
  • Conjunctivitis;
  • Skin reactions;


Contraindications and warnings associated with the use of Cyclophosphamide


The intake of this drug could stop menstruation (amenorrhea) in women and therefore it could manifest symptoms that are typical of pre-menopausal age, such as hot flashes, excessive sweating and vaginal dryness. Infertility in men can occur, which can be permanent in a small percentage of people, especially in young people. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the opportunity of sperm preservation before therapy.