Timolol is used in the treatment of blood pressure, angina pectoris and prophylaxis due to coronary insufficiency.


What is Timolol?


Timolol is an antihypertensive, antiadrenergic, non-selective beta receptor 1 (expressed in cardiac) and beta 2 (expressed in vascular and bronchial) blocker, also called "beta-adrenergic blocker" or simply "beta-blocker."


The effect on the beta receptors 1 consists in a reduction of cardiac activity due to a decreased stimulation of the same receptors. Reducing the speed and the contractile force of the heart muscle and decreasing the speed of conduction of impulses through the conducting system, the response of the heart to stress and exercise is reduced and the coronary blood flow is improved. On the other hand, the effect on beta 2 receptors involves the inhibition of vasodilation and bronchodilation. All these mechanisms lead to a reduction in the frequency and cardiac output, a better filling of the ventricles and improved coronary perfusion.


How should Timolol be taken?


Timolol is administered orally.


Side effects associated with Timolol


Adverse effects due to the assumption of Timolol usually depend on the ingested dose and duration of therapy. Among the most common side effects are included:


  • Asthenia
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Bradycardia
  • Gastrointestinal disorders
  • Metabolic disorders (especially carbohydrate alterations).


More rare side effects (but usually of considerable clinical importance) appear to include bradycardia, depression, wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing.


Contraindications and warnings associated with the use of Timolol


In administering this particular medication attention should be paid to patients with respiratory allergies, since Timolol – in addition to inhibiting bronchodilation – can increase susceptibility to allergens. It is important to stop treatment if the patient is subjected to surgery, since the concomitant use of anesthetic drugs may increase the heart rate lowering the effects of Timolol. Similar to other beta-blockers, particular attention should be paid in cases of patients with diabetes, since they have a direct effect on the glucose metabolism and may mask some classic effects of hypoglycemia, such as tremor. The intake of the drug may cause dizziness and drowsiness and make it dangerous to operate dangerous machinery and drive a vehicle.


The administration to pregnant women requires careful consideration of the precarious relationship to the unborn child/maternal benefit and it is usually not recommended because the possible presence of effects that could compromise the health of the unborn child are still being researched. The possible secretion of Timolol in breast milk contraindicates its intake during breastfeeding.