Hypovolemia is a reduction of the volume of the blood circulating in the body. At the base there may be bleeding or loss of body fluids other than blood data arising from diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating. Hypovolemia can however also be caused by severe burns, use of diuretics or by insufficient fluid intake.
The first problem is dryness of the mouth, nose and other mucous membranes. The skin loses elasticity and the production of urine decreases. If the loss of blood or fluids is not adequately compensated you can get the hypovolemic shock, a condition that occurs when you lose one-fifth of the volume of blood. At this point symptoms like cold sweats, pale skin, rapid breathing and heart rate, weakness, anxiety, confusion and loss of consciousness may appear.
What kind of diseases can be associated with hypovolemia?
The following diseases may be associated with hypovolemia are the following:
- Aortic aneurysm
- Diabetes insipidus
- Internal bleeding
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Kidney failure
- Adrenal insufficiency
- Addison's disease
- Septic shock
- Duodenal ulcer
- Gastric ulcer
- Peptic ulcer
- Esophageal varices
Remember that this is not an exhaustive list and it is highly recommended to consult your doctor, in case of symptom’s persistence
What is the therapy for hypovolemia?
The best remedy in case of hypovolemia depends on its severity. Drip-based sugars or solutions saline may be necessary. In other cases transfusions of plasma, platelets, red blood cells or of cryoprecipitate containing fibrinogen are essential. Sometimes you should intervene with drugs to raise blood the pressure.
It is also important to treat the cause of the loss of blood or fluids.
When is most likely to contact your doctor in case of hypovolemia?
Hypovolemic shock is a medical emergency that requires immediate action. In the presence of its symptoms it is good to call an ambulance.
It is also good to immediately seek the help of a doctor if you are pregnant.