Gynecology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of the physiology and diseases of the female reproductive system.


What does a gynecologist do?

A doctor specializing in gynecology deals with diagnosing and treating, in cooperation with other specialists, the disorders that affect the female reproductive tract. The task of a gynecologist also includes monitoring a woman during her pregnancy.


What diseases are treated by a gynecologist?

The diseases frequently treated by a gynecologist include various infections such as bacterial, fungal, or viral against one of the organs that make up the female reproductive tract including the ovaries, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia. In particular these include benign tumor of the reproductive tract such as ovarian cysts, vulvar and vaginal warts, congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract, and problems related to pregnancy such as ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Other issues include endometriosis, uterina myoma, pelvic inflammatory diseases, acute and chronic pelvic pain, and STD's. 


What are the procedures used by a gynecologist? 

The procedures most frequently used by a gynecologist include screening for women's cancers by using a Pap test for the detection of HPV DNA in search of cervical cancer, and breast ultrasound and mammography for breast cancer. Other procedures include diagnostic tests such as colposcopy, diagnostic interventions such as endometrial biopsy, and surgery procedures of various types including tubal ligation, removal of uterina myoma, removal of cysts, and removal of the uterus or part of it which is called hysterectomy.


When should a patient visit a gynecologist?

After sexual maturity a women should be examined by a gynecologist annually, even in the absence of specific problems or symptoms in order to monitor the health of their reproductive system. It is recommended to notify a gynecologist of every problem that affects the reproductive system such as increase of discharge from the vagina, change in color or odor, pelvic pain of any kind, if the menses are painful or are experiencing blood loss different than the usual, and in the case of unprotected sex.
The gynecologist is also the specialist who deals with women who have fertility problems and difficulty conceiving.