An eye examination is the branch of medicine that deals with the structure, function, and diseases or disorders pertaining the eye.

What does an ophthalmologist do?

An ophthalmologist is a doctor able to prevent, diagnose, and treat disorders and diseases that can affect the eye. To do so the doctor examines the patient, prescribes the needed tests, and uses the gathered data to adopt the appropriate treatment, which can be either medical or surgical. The doctor can also prescribe corrective lenses.

What diseases are treated by an ophthalmologist?

Among the disorders and diseases often treated by an ophthalmologist are amblyopia, astigmatism, cataract, keratoconus, conjunctivitis, central serous retinopathy, age related macular degeneration, diplopia, retinal detachment, vitreous detachment, and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Others include epiphora, glaucoma, farsightedness, floaters, myopia, optic neuritis, retinal venous occlusions, pinguecula, pterygium, retinopathy of arteriosclerotic, diabetic and hypertensive nature, strabismus, uveitis, and refractive error.

What are the procedures used by an ophthalmologist?

During an eye examination an ophthalmologist will collect information on the general health of the patient and pay special attention to the eyes. The matters on which the doctor focuses on during an examination are the alignment of the eyes, motility, state of the eyelids and their motility, and any signs of disease of the lacrimal and pupils. 
Among the most used procedures by an ophthalmologist are the analysis of the fundus, refractometry, biomicroscopy, specular endothelial micrography, visual acuity test, fluorescein angiography, corneal pachymetry, FDT perimetry, corneal tomography, optical computed tomography (OCT), ocular tonometry, and corneal topography. 

What treatments are prescribed by an ophthalmologist?

Among the corrective procedures used are, the refractive surgery with an excimer laser, corneal collage crosslinking (CXL), intravitreal injection for diseases of the retina, strabismus surgery, corneal transplants, cataract surgery, vitrectomy, and trabeculectomy. 

When should a patient visit an ophthalmologist?

It is advised to visit an ophthalmologist at least every two years even if no problem has occurred to the sight of the patient, especially if there is a family history of eye diseases such as systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatic diseases. A patient should also visit in case of eye disorders, and reduction of visual skills. In children, an eye examination is recommended before the age of 3, at the age of 6, and every one or two years up to the age of 14.