Vomiting, also known by the name "Emesis", is a reflex act that – by means of a substantial contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles and an energetic anti-peristaltic contraction (type of gastrointestinal contraction that occurs with a movement from bottom to top, opposite to that of peristaltic contractions) of the stomach wall, causing a rapid leakage of part of the gastric contents through the mouth.


There are many conditions that can cause vomiting: gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary disorders, renal and cardiac (heart attack) conditions, poisoning of various kinds, including drugs, motion sickness (the "sickness"), neurological diseases, psychological disorders (anxiety, stress), headaches, and defects in vision. Vomiting is also a relatively common disorder among pregnant women. 

There are several symptoms that usually precede and accompany vomiting: salivationnausea, drooling, and low blood pressure.


What diseases can be associated with vomiting?

The diseases that can be associated with vomiting include the following:


  • Acetonemia
  • Food Allergy
  • Indigestion
  • Gastritis
  • Appendicitis
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Gallbladder calcifications
  • Anxiety
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Angina pectoris
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney failure
  • Headache
  • Migraine
  • Botulism
  • Motion Sickness
  • Cholecystitis
  • Renal colic
  • Colon cancer
  • Colitis
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Esophagitis
  • Dengue fever
  • Hepatitis
  • Hiatal hernia
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Malaria
  • Ebola
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Labyrinthitis
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Depression
  • Cat-scratch disease
  • Addison's disease
  • Crohn's disease
  • Meniere’s disease
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Stomach cancer
  • Otitis
  • Glaucoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Meningitis
  • Cleft palate
  • Intracranial hematoma
  • Peritonitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Gastroesophageal refulx
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Anger
  • Severe brain injury
  • Septic shock
  • Mallory-Weiss syndrome
  • Typhus
  • Rotavirus
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Scarlet fever
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Salmonella
  • Smallpox


It is important to note that the list is not exhaustive and it is always recommended to consult a doctor.


What are the remedies against vomiting?

Since there are numerous diseases that can cause vomiting and the majority of diseases differ from each other – ranging from viral gastroenteritis to gastric ulcers to tumours on the pancreas and stomach as well as colorectal cancer – it is necessary to initially identify the underlying cause for the vomiting in order to develop a targeted or specific therapy. 

In general, anti-emetics are the usual remedy used in case of vomiting, and it is given only with a prescription from a doctor. To restore the proper fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, especially in case of repeated episodes of vomiting in the recent days, a doctor might recommend taking minerals.


When to contact a doctor?

In the case of vomiting, speak to your doctor if the problem does not seem to regress within a few days even if you have already received a diagnosis or if there is risk of associated diseases (see list of associated diseases).

Seek prompt medical attention if the vomiting is accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, blurred vision, fainting, confusion, severe abdominal pain or cramping, high fever and stiff neck, cold, clammy, pale skin or if there is a presence of faecal matter or faecal odour in the vomit.